Installing Solar Panels Tutorial ~ Introduction ~ Solar System Zone

In this series we will learn some basics about the installation of solar panels starting from scientific theories passing to the practical and technical aspects in this field.

In this article we will address the introduction to the solar system, especially the relationship of the Earth and the sun and the variatin of seasons and its impact on the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface of the earth.


Sun is the source of all different energies on the Earth (chemical and thermal energy), It is a mass of incandescent gases whose center temperature is about 17 million degrees Celsius, this huge energy is produced as a result of some kind of nuclear reactions, So the center of the sun is a huge natural nuclear reactor that produces gamma rays and X-rays.

However, the rays when they move from the interior of the sun to the surface have been converted to absorption, and then re-broadcast through the different layers of the sun to visible solar radiation which can be felt by the naked eye, This solar radiation is the main source of solar energy.

Some facts about the Sun

It is the closest star to Earth, about 152 million km away.
It has a diameter of about 1,172,222 km which is more than 127 times the diameter of the Earth.
The temperature at the center of the sun is very high, reaching 17,222,222 degrees Celsius.
The Earth's temperature is usually not above 52 degrees Celsius.
The surface of the sun is called the "photosphere" (the surface of the yoke).
The Sun orbits its axis once every 25 days.

Nicholas Copernicus (1473 - 1543) born in Bologna, he is a monk, mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, jurist, physician, administrator and diplomat who was one of the greatest scholars of his time. He is the first to formulate the theory of the centrality of the sun and considers Earth an orbiting object in his book "On the Rotation of Orbs." He is the developer of the theory of earth rotation and is considered the founder of modern European astronomy from 1722 to 1722 AD. And so he has the theory that "the Sun is the center of the universe" or "Copernicus system" where he realized that the Earth revolves around itself and that it also orbits the orbit of the Sun.

The heat generated in the center of the sun rushes to its surface, glowing in a bright yellow color and radiating huge amounts of light, and the heat and light energy emitted by the sun is spread through space in all directions.

Thermal energy is known as infrared radiation, which is invisible but senses. Every body that absorbs this radiation becomes warmer than before.

The other radiation emitted by the sun is ultraviolet radiation, unlike light and infrared radiation, from which little reaches the surface of the earth. Ultraviolet radiation is generally considered healthy, and some chemical reactions do not occur without it. The heat and light energy that comes from the sun is essential for life.

Some facts about the Earth

The Earth is one of nine planets orbiting the Sun in the same direction. The nearest planet is Mercury, followed by Venus, then Earth ..... and even Pluto.

Lines of Latitude and Longitude

For ease of study of the planet because of its breadth, scientists have drawn longitude and latitude on maps representing the Earth's surface.

longitudes definition

longitudes are semi-circles that start from the North Pole at the South Pole and perpendicularly surround the Earth. The main longitude is the Greenwich, which has a temperature of zero and the average longitude of these lines pass on areas with exactly the same timing. Longitudes are used to locate places east and west of the Greenwich line, as well as to determine the time and time differences in all parts of the world due to the time difference from one country to another around the world.

latitude definition

Latitudes are Horizontal imaginary circles that surround the Earth and their lenght gradually decrease as we move north and south of the equator. There are 132 circles and the main circle is the the equator circle, its temperature is zero and is the longest one in lenght. Latitudes are used for positioning north and south of the equator, dividing the world into thermal zones and determining climate conditions (temperature), both latitude and longitude are used to determine the location of any place anywhere in land, sea or air.

Location of the Earth from the Sun

It is known that solar energy is one of the important energy sources of the Earth, where a huge amount of sunlight reaches the Earth's atmosphere, as a result of the planet's rotation around the sun in a limited orbit, varying amounts of this energy reaches the surface of the earth daily, these quantities depend on the location of the Earth From the sun and on the four seasons.

The Earth rotates around an imaginary axis passing through the North Pole and the South Pole, which tilts 23.5 ° from the Earth's orbit. This tendency causes the four seasons so the day is long and hot and the night is short in summer, while the day is short and cold night is long in winter.

March 21st: The spring equinox equates day and night.
September 21st: The autumnal equinox is equal to day and night.
December 22: Winter solstice with shorter day and longer night.
June 21: The summer solstice has the longest day and the shortest night.
At the equator is equal day and night.

It is known that the countries located on the equator are the countries that have almost one season throughout the year, namely the summer, ie, shining sunlight on these countries throughout the year and then enjoy the countries near the equator this weather. Residents of the northern and southern regions of the equator and close to the Earth's poles are aware of the four seasons of the year.

The amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface varies due to changing weather conditions and the changing location of the Earth relative to the Sun, during the day and throughout the year. Clouds are one of the main atmospheric factors affecting the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth, and therefore cloudy areas receive less solar radiation than desert areas.

The largest amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth is on afternoon when sunlight is perpendicular to the surface of the Earth, while at sunrise and sunset the earth receives the minimum amount of solar radiation throughout the day. When sunlight falls perpendicular to the Earth's surface during the afternoon, the rays or solar radiation are exposed to very small losses, which is the absorption of clouds of solar radiation or scatter radiation in space by reflecting through airborne volcanic ash or airborne fumes resulting from burning trees and other environmental pollutants.

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